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Ecological public welfare posts achieve a win-win situation of ecological protection and targeted poverty alleviation
Ecological public welfare posts are an important policy and practice innovation in ecological poverty alleviation. General Secretary Xi Jinping made many important instructions on the establishment of ecological public welfare posts to promote poverty alleviation. Several central ministries and commissions issued documents specifying the principles, directions and development goals of ecological public welfare posts. Some provinces have introduced specific management measures for the establishment of ecological public welfare posts. Conducted useful and innovative explorations. At present, the battle against pollution and the battle against poverty are at a critical stage. How to further improve the policy of ecological public welfare posts to better promote ecological protection and targeted poverty alleviation is an important practical issue that all levels of departments and governments are concerned about.
Setup of ecological public welfare posts
The scale of setting up ecological management positions such as ecological forest guards has gradually expanded. In 2016, the former State Forestry Administration, together with the Ministry of Finance and the Poverty Alleviation Office of the State Council, launched the poverty alleviation work of selecting and building archives of the poor to serve as ecological forest guards. In that year, the central government invested 2 billion yuan. In 2017, the central government allocated a total of 2.5 billion yuan, and 370,000 poverty-stricken people who have filed and settled through the employment of ecological forest guards. In January 2018, the "Eco-Poverty Alleviation Work Plan" was released, focusing on 22 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in the central and western regions, implementing a fund of 3.5 billion yuan for ecological forest rangers, and selecting more than 500,000 ecological forest rangers for poor people name. According to the "Work Plan for Ecological Poverty Alleviation", it is planned to recruit 200,000 ecological forest rangers and 100,000 grass managers in 2019. The large-scale establishment of ecological protection public welfare posts such as ecological forest guards and grassland guards has played an important role in promoting ecological precision poverty alleviation.
There are more and more types of ecological public welfare posts. The establishment of public welfare posts for ecological management and protection in various regions mainly includes: ecological forestry posts, such as key ecological public welfare forest rangers, new afforestation and forestry posts, etc .; grassland wetland ecological managers, sandy land banned protection managers, and water ecological protection posts. Such as water resources management personnel, water and soil conservation supervisors, river management personnel, etc .; rural ecological environmental protection positions, such as rural road maintenance positions, tourist toilet cleaner positions, village-level environmental supervisor positions, etc.
The subsidy level for ecological public welfare posts is higher than the poverty alleviation standard. According to the "Notice on the Implementation of the Selection and Employment of Ecological Rangers for the Poor People in the Archives in 2018", the labor subsidy standard for each ecological ranger is estimated at 10,000 yuan per capita per year, and localities can consider the previous year in consideration of the actual local conditions. The specific criteria for subsidy for the selection and management of the ecological forest guardians shall be determined based on factors such as the management subsidy standard, the area under management, the difficulty of management and the existing level of labor subsidies for the ecological forest guards. A survey of Nujiang Prefecture in Yunnan and other places found that the subsidy standards for ecological forest rangers are mostly around 8,000-10,000 yuan per person per year.
"Multiple jobs, multiple posts and multiple responsibilities" has become the setting direction of ecological public welfare posts. According to actual needs, in some places, the ecological forest guards are responsible for the maintenance of rural roads, the improvement of urban and rural human settlements, the protection of river systems, and the monitoring of geological hazards while performing their duties of forest resource management.
Problems in the establishment of ecological public welfare posts
The positioning and scope of the setting of ecological public welfare posts are still unclear. Some public welfare posts are set up as temporary pure poverty alleviation posts for poverty alleviation. They are not integrated with the long-term needs of ecological environmental protection work. This will affect whether public welfare post policies can play a long-term and effective role in promoting poverty alleviation and ecological environmental protection. . In view of the lack of detailed implementation plans for the setting of other ecological public welfare posts other than ecological forest guards, the number of posts, the nature of the posts, the salary standard, and the source of funds are inconsistent, and some environmental protection public welfare posts are more casually selected. The setting of ecological public welfare posts has the problem of uneven distribution of ecological management and protection tasks, and the management and protection boundaries also have overlapping and unclear problems.
Positions are mainly set up in the areas of management and protection of ecological elements such as forests and grasslands, and there are fewer areas for environmental pollution control. Although the Ministry of Ecology and Environment in the "Guiding Opinions on Eco-Environmental Protection to Help Win the Accurate Fight against Poverty," put forward opinions on setting up certain jobs for the poor in pollution prevention projects, enhanced supervision of the ecological environment, and red line management of ecological protection, At present, there are few considerations in these areas in various places, and relevant functions have not been included in the existing duties of ecological public welfare posts.
In terms of funding sources, except for public welfare posts for ecological forest protection, which are provided by the central government, most of the funds for other related ecological public welfare posts are coordinated by the localities according to their own conditions, and there is a lack of stable and sustainable financial guarantees. Some rural ecological public welfare posts are resolved by the village collectives, which affects the stability and expected effect of the establishment of ecological public welfare posts. Taking Qinghai Province as an example, of the three types of grassland, forestry, and wetland management and protection posts set up, only the forestry ecological public welfare posts will be funded by the central financial fund, and other posts will be funded from the provincial financial poverty alleviation fund and the provincial financial ecological protection fund arrangement.
On the top-level design, systematic institutional design is relatively lacking. Lack of a long-term mechanism for the assessment, supervision and evaluation of environmental public welfare posts, and the lack of a dynamic adjustment mechanism for the management of post personnel in some areas. The entry mechanism of willing and qualified poor households needs to be adjusted and optimized.
In the long-term planning, we are facing the question of how to continue the ecological public welfare post policy after 2020. The establishment of ecological public welfare posts lacks a long-term and stable funding guarantee mechanism. It is still unclear whether there is an effective mechanism for the withdrawal of some public welfare posts after the fight against poverty in 2020. In the rural revitalization strategy, the key areas and intended roles of ecological public welfare posts have not been clarified. From these several levels, the system design of ecological public welfare posts urgently requires relatively long-term system planning.
In actual work, there are cases in which the poor households selected for registration and registration are unable to meet the demand for the capacity of ecological management posts. Many eco-care workers are poor groups with low education level, poor labor skills, difficulty in going out to work, and few employment opportunities. There are even some eco-managers who are fragile and ill, and it is difficult for them to undertake the work of ecological patrol that consumes a lot of energy. In the performance of due diligence, there are still situations such as failure to fully understand and grasp job responsibilities, and not to perform functions efficiently according to law, which affects the actual effect of ecological management.
Thinking and policy advice
In the positioning of posts, the basic principles of giving priority to ecology and giving consideration to poverty alleviation should be clarified. Clarify the principle of giving priority to ecology and giving consideration to poverty alleviation. Posts should be set up scientifically based on the actual needs of ecological environmental protection. Unnecessary posts will not be developed, so as not to cause double waste of personnel and funds. On the one hand, it avoids the problem of blindly achieving rapid poverty alleviation through the establishment of ecological public welfare posts, but the effect of poverty alleviation is unstable and unsustainable; on the other hand, it is based on the establishment of posts instead of people, and avoids the imbalance in the setting of ecological public welfare posts and the management and protection tasks New contradictions brought by inequality.
In the scale of the post, it should be determined comprehensively in accordance with local conditions in combination with factors such as management area, task, and difficulty. Because the degree of ecological vulnerability and the difficulty of management are very different in different areas, the setting of ecological public welfare posts should be determined in consideration of the degree of ecological vulnerability, the difficulty of ecological management, and the amount of ecological management tasks. .
In terms of job types, the relevant public welfare post settings are integrated, and the “one job, multiple functions, one post, and multiple responsibilities” model of ecological public welfare posts is explored. According to the actual situation in each region, the management and protection of ecological elements such as landscapes, forests, lakes, and grasses can be optimized and integrated. To achieve integrated management of landscapes, forests, fields, lakes and grass. In terms of specific job settings, actively develop jobs such as ecological resource management and protection, environmental infrastructure maintenance, etc. that are conducive to local poverty alleviation. On the basis of the existing functions of ecological public welfare posts, the function of ecological environmental protection can be incorporated. While improving job efficiency, gradually raise the salary level of ecological public welfare posts and increase the income level of the poor.
In terms of job targets, ecological public welfare posts are leaning towards deeply impoverished areas and key ecological function areas. The post salary standard is appropriately tilted to poor families and hard jobs in ecological environment protection. Increasing the salaries of these posts is beneficial to the stability of these posts, and it also reflects the principle of more work and more gain. At the same time embodying the principle of part-time job setting, the poor labor force can complete the workload from time to time, autonomously and flexibly according to job requirements, and strive to increase the overall income of poor families.
In terms of funding sources, improve the funding source channels for ecological public welfare posts and establish a stable and reliable funding growth guarantee mechanism. Incorporate the setting of ecological public welfare posts into the special fund support of relevant national major strategies, explore the central funding source channels of “comprehensive financial assistance + special” methods, and establish a dynamic evaluation and adjustment mechanism to improve the support of central funds based on the effects of ecological management and conservation. The localities can integrate the sources of relevant functional funds according to the job responsibilities of the ecological public welfare posts, and for the performance subsidy of the ecological public welfare posts, the localities can also make overall plans from the central and provincial transfer funds and related supporting funds from cities and counties. At the same time, it will explore the participation of social capital and provide effective channels for ecological management personnel to provide supporting support for patrol, transportation, and monitoring equipment.
In post management, improve the long-term management mechanism for the selection, training, assessment, supervision and evaluation of ecological public welfare posts. Implement a dynamic management mechanism for ecological public welfare management and protection posts, link the staffing and management positions with the management area and the effectiveness of management and protection, and improve the effectiveness of ecological management and precision poverty alleviation. Carry out timely evaluation and investigation of ecological public welfare post policies and improve related policies in a timely manner. Innovate the mode of ecological management and management, such as the development of a unified management system for ecological management and inspection.
On the organizational model, build a grid-based operation management mechanism for ecological public welfare posts. Drawing on the integrated grid management model of mountains, rivers, forests, and grasses in the Sanjiangyuan National Park, a “point-to-line, network-to-surface” management and protection system was formed to improve the level of organization and management of ecological management personnel. Management teams can be set up in counties and cities, and management squadrons in towns and villages, responsible for the overall management of the ecological management staff and their expanded functions in the region; management teams are set up in administrative villages, with 10-20 people as a group, and a team leader And several deputy team leaders, responsible for organizing work. Clarify the specific work responsibilities of management and protection team members in the areas of ecological patrol, biodiversity protection, and ecological environmental protection laws and regulations.
In terms of system design, carry out long-term planning for ecological public welfare posts, clarify phased goals and tasks, and realize the transition from quantitative expansion to quality improvement. Promote the formation of a coordinated mechanism for the policy formulation and management of ecological public welfare posts, set up functional optimization and integration and future development planning opinions for ecological public welfare posts, consider the ecological management needs of various departments, and build a stable and sustainable long-term management and guarantee mechanism. Give full play to the long-term role of ecological public welfare posts in ecological environment protection and ecological poverty alleviation.
Author units: Yu Hai, Wang Yong, Zhang Huan, Research Center for Environmental and Economic Policy, Ministry of Ecology and Environment; Huo Liming, Organ Affairs Administration of the Organization Department
Source: China Environment News